Training Articles

Step Loading Strategies for the Athletic Population

Loading strategies directly affect the process of improvement in performance within the athletic population. The overall workloads of the athlete over the course of specified period of time must increase on a gradual basis and be manipulated over this time period in order for physiological performance characteristics to improve (Bompa & Buzzichelli, 2019). The manipulations and variations in workloads and invariably load, are based upon physiological, cognitive, and psychological components of the athlete in addition to training experience, and competitive...

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An Overview of Speed, Acceleration, & Reaction Time for Sport

Speed, acceleration, and reaction time are all components of many sports. These sports can include field-based team sports as well as individual sports such as tennis. Each one of these components are integral in performance of a team and the individual athlete. The development of these three components are major drivers in the overall physiological preparation for success in competition. It must be recognized athletes of varying sports require differing requirements of speed, acceleration, and reaction time. Taking this concept,...

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A Brief Synopsis of Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement utilized by the athletic and general populations. The dietary supplement is a popular, commercially marketed sports supplement which proposes to facilitate ATP production in high intensity, short duration physical activities (Ransone, Lefavi, Jacobson, 2002). Most of the current literature on creatine monohydrate has investigated the benefits of this supplement from a physiological perspective, it has also shown to improve cognitive parameters (Machek & Bagley, 2018). Creatine is a naturally occurring compound which can be synthesized...

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Early Sports Specialization

Early sports specialization has become increasingly common over the past twenty years in many sports. Sports specialization can be defined as intense training in one sport while excluding participation in other sport (Jayanthi et al., 2013) The specialization has the tendency to addres sthe skill acquisition components of the sport only with minimal attention paid to physiological components associated with general athleticism and maturation(Lloyd et al., 2016). An example would be a junior golfer at the age of six years...

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A brief review of periodization schedule

Periodized training programs are planned distributions of workloads to avoid stagnation in performance improvement and to optimize performance for competitions within the year (Bartoloemi et al., 2014). A periodization schedule consists of specific periods of time in terms of days, weeks, or months of specificity, intensity, and volume of training (Baechle et al., 1991). Two common periodization schedules in present day sport are the traditional periodization schedule and undulating periodization schedule. The undulating periodization schedule involves daily fluctuations in terms of...

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Understanding the differences between speed, agility, and change of direction

Speed, agility, and change of direction are all components of field-based sports. Each one of these components are integral in performance of a team and each individual athlete. The development of these three components within the athletic population is a major driver of success and improved performance of the individual within their chosen sport of participation. Understanding the underlying biomechanics of speed, agility, and change of direction is important in developing the constructs to improve each of these entities within...

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Overtraining & Detraining

Overtraining syndrome (OTS) can be defined as a period of time where physical training is at an intensity or volume in which the body is not provided an adequate amount of time for recovery from bouts of exercise (Clark & Lucent, 2010). Overtraining syndrome may also occur when chronic under-fueling from a nutritional standpoint occurs in which the body is unable to recover from bouts of exercise. Either cause of overtraining syndrome may result in a series of symptoms, signs,...

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Concepts Behind the Trend in Sports Specific Training

The term sports specific training has become a popular concept within the field strength and conditioning over the past decade. The underlying premise to sports specific training is the more similar a training activity is to the movement patterns performed during competition the greater likelihood there a positive translation to performance parameters during competition (Haff & Triplett, 2016). The concept of sport specific training is based upon the specific adaptations to imposed demands (SAID principle (Haff, et al., 2016). The...

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Effect of compression garment on recovery from exercise or sport induced muscle fatigue

Athletes and individuals involved in structured exercise programs are always looking for processes to improve performance. One component of improving performance is recovery from exercise, practices, or competition (Hamlin et al., 2012). Repetitive exercise or athletic actions results in fatigue, micro-trauma to the musculature, and sensations of soreness (Upton, Brown, & Hill, 2017). The sensation of soreness is described as delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The micro-trauma is referred to as exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and is characterized by...

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Biomechanical Analysis of the Modern Golf Swing

Introduction The introduction of diagnostic tools in the past decade such as 3 Dimensional Motion Analysis, Force Plate testing, and Movement assessments strategies have allowed for a very precise analysis of the modern day golf swing. In this day and age subjective reviews of the golf swing and what transpires in the execution of the golf swing are no longer prevalent. Science has certainly advanced the game in every aspect. These advances include the biomechanical and physicals components of the game....

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A Brief Upper Extremity Anatomical Overview of The Pitching Motion

The Biomechanical motion of pitching involves utilization of the entire kinetic chain to deliver the baseball at a high level of velocity with accuracy. The completion of this motion requires involvement of lower extremities, pelvis, torso, and upper extremities to execute. It is imperative from a performance and injury preventative perspective to understand the complexity of the overhand throwing motion. The overhead throwing motion of pitching is typically separated into phases from start to finish during the analysis of this athletic...

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Power Signatures of the Rotary Athlete

It is the goal of most every golfer, pitcher, hitter, or any rotary based athlete for that matter to swing faster, throw harder, or generate more bat speed. It is basically a fact the greater amounts of speed these athletes generate the propensity for success increases. For example, a study a number of years back by the Titleist Performance Institute found the only statistic measured on the PGA Tour equating to increased earnings was driving distance. No other statistic from...

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Pelvis Power in the Rotary Athlete

Understanding the kinematics of the rotary athlete assists in determining efficiencies, inefficiencies, and power sources with the throwing and striking motion. The hitting, throwing, and swinging motion all have a very common signature as it pertains to the pelvis action relative to efficient energy translation and power development. Regardless if you are position player in baseball, tennis athlete, pitcher, or golfer, research indicates all of these athletes have similar kinematic sequences and invariably show a very similar anterior to posterior...

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What Can the Strength and Conditioning Coach Learn from 3D Motion Analysis?

The process of utilizing diagnostic tools by professional athletes, organizations, and sports performance coaches is in full swing. The driver behind the utilization of these diagnostic tools is the shifting from a subjective perspective of athlete development and injury prevention to one which is scientifically based. This process "moves the needle" in terms of we are no longer guessing what we as professionals need to do to keep our athletes healthy and improving to a process based on science, data,...

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Sports Science and Motion Analysis Technology

There is a paradigm shift in the world of sports performance in this day and age. We are seeing the utilization of diagnostic tools to provide measurable information to improve the processes by which we train, coach, and teach athletes. Sport science is the terms being used to describe this process of shifting from a subjective means of sports performance training to a scientific based continuum where diagnostic tools such as force plates, motion analysis data capture systems, and science...

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Off-Season Strength and Conditioning Programming for Rotary Athletes

The rotary athlete participating in throwing and striking sports where speed generation occurs through the kinetic chain into bat, ball, racquet, or club have similar sequences by which energy is translated for optimal performance. As a result, the underlying physiological systems requiring development to enhance performance and limit the potential for injury are similar. We recognize the physiological requirements of the tennis player needing court coverage, compared to the golfer athlete impacting the golf ball with 8 times body weight...

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The Kinematic Sequence and Speed Generation for the Rotary Athlete

In the sports of golf, tennis, baseball, and softball optimal performance is a combination of both skill and the development of specific physical parameters within the kinetic chain to support this athletic skill. According to the National Academy of Sports Medicine skill can be defined as the ability of the neuromuscular system to coordinate the kinetic chain to allow for optimal efficiency within the functional movement patterns of the athlete’s chosen sport. In order for athletes, coaches, and sports medicine...

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Anaerobic and Aerobic Training for Sport

Athletes who participate in sports competitively utilize the anaerobic and aerobic systems very differently. Utilization of the aerobic and anaerobic systems of energy are very sport dependent. For example, a marathon runner will utilize the aerobic system of the body to a very high degree whereas the American football player will rely heavily on the Anaerobic system during the course of a game. That being said, understanding the differences between these two systems and the processes by which the athlete...

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Kinetic Chain Dysfunctions in Sport

The kinetic chain of the human body is comprised of the articular, muscular, and nervous systems. It is these three sub-systems of the kinetic working interdependently to create efficient movement within the human body. Relative to the athlete in competition, these three sub-systems cohesively function together to run, throw, hit, swing, jump, and change direction. Unfortunately, dysfunction in one of these systems or a combination of systems will deter from performance during competition, lead to the development of inefficient movement...

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The Serape Effect – A Key Contributor to Rotational Power

The "Serape Effect" is a key concept for the the overhead throwing and striking athlete to understand in terms of power development, increasing swing speeds, throwing velocities, and core programming. Recognize one goal of the golfers, pitcher, tennis player, and all rotational athletes is to generate maximum speed to into ball, racket, or bat. A key component of this process is within the functioning of the core musculature. The serape is a Mexican garment piece which crosses in an X-pattern on...

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