Training Articles

A brief review of periodization schedule

Periodized training programs are planned distributions of workloads to avoid stagnation in performance improvement and to optimize performance for competitions within the year (Bartoloemi et al., 2014). A periodization schedule consists of specific periods of time in terms of days, weeks, or months of specificity, intensity, and volume of training (Baechle et al., 1991). Two common periodization schedules in present day sport are the traditional periodization schedule and undulating periodization schedule. The undulating periodization schedule involves daily fluctuations in terms of...

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Understanding the differences between speed, agility, and change of direction

Speed, agility, and change of direction are all components of field-based sports. Each one of these components are integral in performance of a team and each individual athlete. The development of these three components within the athletic population is a major driver of success and improved performance of the individual within their chosen sport of participation. Understanding the underlying biomechanics of speed, agility, and change of direction is important in developing the constructs to improve each of these entities within...

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Overtraining & Detraining

Overtraining syndrome (OTS) can be defined as a period of time where physical training is at an intensity or volume in which the body is not provided an adequate amount of time for recovery from bouts of exercise (Clark & Lucent, 2010). Overtraining syndrome may also occur when chronic under-fueling from a nutritional standpoint occurs in which the body is unable to recover from bouts of exercise. Either cause of overtraining syndrome may result in a series of symptoms, signs,...

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Concepts Behind the Trend in Sports Specific Training

The term sports specific training has become a popular concept within the field strength and conditioning over the past decade. The underlying premise to sports specific training is the more similar a training activity is to the movement patterns performed during competition the greater likelihood there a positive translation to performance parameters during competition (Haff & Triplett, 2016). The concept of sport specific training is based upon the specific adaptations to imposed demands (SAID principle (Haff, et al., 2016). The...

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Effect of compression garment on recovery from exercise or sport induced muscle fatigue

Athletes and individuals involved in structured exercise programs are always looking for processes to improve performance. One component of improving performance is recovery from exercise, practices, or competition (Hamlin et al., 2012). Repetitive exercise or athletic actions results in fatigue, micro-trauma to the musculature, and sensations of soreness (Upton, Brown, & Hill, 2017). The sensation of soreness is described as delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). The micro-trauma is referred to as exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and is characterized by...

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Biomechanical Analysis of the Modern Golf Swing

Introduction The introduction of diagnostic tools in the past decade such as 3 Dimensional Motion Analysis, Force Plate testing, and Movement assessments strategies have allowed for a very precise analysis of the modern day golf swing. In this day and age subjective reviews of the golf swing and what transpires in the execution of the golf swing are no longer prevalent. Science has certainly advanced the game in every aspect. These advances include the biomechanical and physicals components of the game....

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A Brief Upper Extremity Anatomical Overview of The Pitching Motion

The Biomechanical motion of pitching involves utilization of the entire kinetic chain to deliver the baseball at a high level of velocity with accuracy. The completion of this motion requires involvement of lower extremities, pelvis, torso, and upper extremities to execute. It is imperative from a performance and injury preventative perspective to understand the complexity of the overhand throwing motion. The overhead throwing motion of pitching is typically separated into phases from start to finish during the analysis of this athletic...

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Power Signatures of the Rotary Athlete

It is the goal of most every golfer, pitcher, hitter, or any rotary based athlete for that matter to swing faster, throw harder, or generate more bat speed. It is basically a fact the greater amounts of speed these athletes generate the propensity for success increases. For example, a study a number of years back by the Titleist Performance Institute found the only statistic measured on the PGA Tour equating to increased earnings was driving distance. No other statistic from...

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Pelvis Power in the Rotary Athlete

Understanding the kinematics of the rotary athlete assists in determining efficiencies, inefficiencies, and power sources with the throwing and striking motion. The hitting, throwing, and swinging motion all have a very common signature as it pertains to the pelvis action relative to efficient energy translation and power development. Regardless if you are position player in baseball, tennis athlete, pitcher, or golfer, research indicates all of these athletes have similar kinematic sequences and invariably show a very similar anterior to posterior...

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What Can the Strength and Conditioning Coach Learn from 3D Motion Analysis?

The process of utilizing diagnostic tools by professional athletes, organizations, and sports performance coaches is in full swing. The driver behind the utilization of these diagnostic tools is the shifting from a subjective perspective of athlete development and injury prevention to one which is scientifically based. This process "moves the needle" in terms of we are no longer guessing what we as professionals need to do to keep our athletes healthy and improving to a process based on science, data,...

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Sports Science and Motion Analysis Technology

There is a paradigm shift in the world of sports performance in this day and age. We are seeing the utilization of diagnostic tools to provide measurable information to improve the processes by which we train, coach, and teach athletes. Sport science is the terms being used to describe this process of shifting from a subjective means of sports performance training to a scientific based continuum where diagnostic tools such as force plates, motion analysis data capture systems, and science...

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Off-Season Strength and Conditioning Programming for Rotary Athletes

The rotary athlete participating in throwing and striking sports where speed generation occurs through the kinetic chain into bat, ball, racquet, or club have similar sequences by which energy is translated for optimal performance. As a result, the underlying physiological systems requiring development to enhance performance and limit the potential for injury are similar. We recognize the physiological requirements of the tennis player needing court coverage, compared to the golfer athlete impacting the golf ball with 8 times body weight...

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The Kinematic Sequence and Speed Generation for the Rotary Athlete

In the sports of golf, tennis, baseball, and softball optimal performance is a combination of both skill and the development of specific physical parameters within the kinetic chain to support this athletic skill. According to the National Academy of Sports Medicine skill can be defined as the ability of the neuromuscular system to coordinate the kinetic chain to allow for optimal efficiency within the functional movement patterns of the athlete’s chosen sport. In order for athletes, coaches, and sports medicine...

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Anaerobic and Aerobic Training for Sport

Athletes who participate in sports competitively utilize the anaerobic and aerobic systems very differently. Utilization of the aerobic and anaerobic systems of energy are very sport dependent. For example, a marathon runner will utilize the aerobic system of the body to a very high degree whereas the American football player will rely heavily on the Anaerobic system during the course of a game. That being said, understanding the differences between these two systems and the processes by which the athlete...

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Kinetic Chain Dysfunctions in Sport

The kinetic chain of the human body is comprised of the articular, muscular, and nervous systems. It is these three sub-systems of the kinetic working interdependently to create efficient movement within the human body. Relative to the athlete in competition, these three sub-systems cohesively function together to run, throw, hit, swing, jump, and change direction. Unfortunately, dysfunction in one of these systems or a combination of systems will deter from performance during competition, lead to the development of inefficient movement...

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The Serape Effect – A Key Contributor to Rotational Power

The "Serape Effect" is a key concept for the the overhead throwing and striking athlete to understand in terms of power development, increasing swing speeds, throwing velocities, and core programming. Recognize one goal of the golfers, pitcher, tennis player, and all rotational athletes is to generate maximum speed to into ball, racket, or bat. A key component of this process is within the functioning of the core musculature. The serape is a Mexican garment piece which crosses in an X-pattern on...

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Strength Development and Training for the Athletic Population

The development of strength within the entire kinetic chain is integral for the execution of biomechanically efficient movement patterns in sport. Limitations in terms of stability, strength, or endurance within the musculature of the entire kinetic chain can severely hamper the ability of an athlete to execute proficiently the movement patterns associated within their sport of competition. "Functional" strength developed from feet to fingertips within the kinetic chain is essential for the athlete as this will provide the foundation by...

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Integrated Performance Training for Throwers and Strikers

The overhead throwing and striking athlete must recognize a strength and conditioning must adhere to specific training principles and include components conducive to injury prevention and athletic development. Understand the baseball, softball, golf, tennis, or volleyball athlete perform a repetitive overhead throwing and rotary action during competition. These kinetic chain patterns require the athlete to encompass certain components week in and week out in order to address all the mobility, strength, and power requirements associated with the athletic actions of...

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Training Principles for Sport

The development of the kinetic chain for sport requires adhering to specified training principles and underlying concepts. These concepts and principles guide the strength coach, athlete, and trainer in the development of the kinetic chain appropriately. These principles in conjunction with a structured training template will assist is a systematic approach in the development of the kinetic chain of the athlete for the sport of their choice. Provided below is a series of principles and training concepts pertinent to the...

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Flexibility Training for the Overhead Throwing and Striking Athlete

The overhead throwing and striking athlete participating in baseball, softball, golf, tennis, volleyball, ice hockey, or lacrosse must recognize the importance mobility and flexibility play in these sporting activities. The execution of the athletic actions associated with these sports, the development of speed, and most importantly the reduction in injuries are contingent upon joint mobility and soft tissue flexibility. Recognize the generation of speed, the ability to change directions, and perform a repetitive movement (i.e. pitching motion, tennis serve, golf...

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